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The sights of Russia attract tens of millions of tourists to the country that has become the successor of the USSR, the most powerful and huge power of the 20th century. Guests of the country come here, trying to visit as many beautiful places as possible. Of course, one trip to see all of them is not enough. That is why guides in Moscow first of all advise guests of the country to look at architectural structures, monuments, museum complexes famous for their history. What to see in Russia if there are so many interesting places? We have included the most important ones in our list – there are fifteen in total.
What to see in Russia first of all
Where to start acquaintance with one of the largest countries in the world? Are guides needed in Russia? What places are considered the most popular among tourists? These and many other questions will be answered by our review, which describes in detail the best Russian sights with up-to-date photographs.
1. Red Square (Moscow)
Red Square is a visiting card of Moscow. Without this landmark of Russia, it is impossible to imagine the state itself. Why did the main white-stone square get such a name? The fact that “red” is a word that means not only color, but also beauty, even schoolchildren know. However, until the 15th century, the burnt-out space near the Kremlin walls was far from attractive. The area was soon built up, setting up shopping malls opposite it, the number of which gradually increased. In the future, the most famous center of trade in the country, GUM, arose here. You will not surprise anyone with its size, but the architecture of the building is truly unique. Of course, the Kremlin with the Spasskaya Tower, the main clock in Russia, has become the symbol of Red Square. If you stand facing the Kremlin wall, where the main politicians and prominent personalities of the country are buried, then on the left you will see the most beautiful temple in the country – St. Basil's Cathedral. Many guides start their tours by visiting this particular building, which delights with its unusualness and grace. Nearby is a monument to Minin and Pozharsky, erected in honor of the 1612 victory over the Poles. The place of execution, also located a few steps from the monument, reminds of the times when the square was also the place of execution of criminals.
2. Peterhof (Petrodvortsovy district, St. Petersburg)
Fountain and water cascades of Peterhof
St. Petersburg was built at the beginning of the 18th century by the will of the Russian Tsar Peter I. For two hundred years, St. Petersburg was the capital of Russia. Not far from the city, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, Peter I built Peterhof – a residence for a summer country holiday with many palaces and a beautiful park. Peterhof is one of the most beautiful sights of Russia. Here, in a small area, a huge number of historical buildings and works of art are concentrated. Today, guests of the city on the Neva can get to Peterhof by water. Special ships leave there from the Admiralteyskaya embankment every half an hour, so that in 30-35 minutes tourists will reach the place famous for its beautiful fountains and monuments to famous historical figures. Having been here, many foreign tourists returning home, when asked what is special to see in Russia, often answer: “Peterhof!” The beauty of the local parks, gardens, gilded and marble sculptures and fountains is comparable to the grandeur of Versailles, and even surpasses it in many ways.
3. Lake Baikal (Irkutsk region, Irkutsk)
The deepest and cleanest lake on the planet
The largest lake on Earth, the Russian shrine is sometimes called the “laboratory of diversity” and the world's largest repository of the purest fresh water. It is home to almost 3,000 plant species, and more than 80% of them are found nowhere else. The only mammal living in the ancient lake is the Baikal seal. A few years ago, Baikal was officially recognized as a “miracle of Russia”. This is the deepest, most transparent and incredibly clean lake on Earth. Despite its age, it does not age. On the contrary, its shores are constantly expanding, and geophysicists suggest that Baikal is part of the emerging ocean. The lake, surrounded by majestic mountain ranges, stores 20% of surface fresh water in its reserves. Glaciers, even in unbearable heat, adorn the mountain peaks, feed more than two hundred rivers that flow into the reservoir, but only the Angara flows out of it. Scientists exploring Baikal have long come to the conclusion that over time, the number of secrets kept by its waters does not decrease, but, on the contrary, grows. You can talk about Baikal and its beauty for hours. But nothing can compare with the majesty and magical charm of this landmark of Russia! A trip to the water miracle of the planet will convince you of this!
Official website: http://lakebaikal.org/
4. Valley of Geysers (Kamchatka)
Valley of Geysers in the Kronotsky Nature Reserve
Travelers who ask experienced tourists questions about what to visit in Russia that they will remember for their magical natural beauty receive the answer: “The Valley of Geysers located in Kamchatka”! This place is considered one of the most beautiful in the world. This volcanic canyon, which reaches a width of two kilometers and stretches for four kilometers, resembles a fantastic “city” of hundreds of geysers and hot springs. Hundreds of years ago there was a lake here, but under the influence of continuous processes taking place in the volcano, it almost completely disappeared, and fountains of boiling water filled in its place. The Valley of Geysers was discovered literally on the eve of the 1941 war. Here, near the Geysernaya River, the geyser Velikan is spouting like a fountain. Tourists who come to visit these sights of Russia can observe its work by climbing to a special observation deck on the right bank of the river. In a minute, the Giant throws up 30 tons of hot water, and the water column reaches the height of a nine-story building! Such a grandiose, truly fantastic spectacle is accompanied by a powerful roar. To the west of the Giant lies the Pearl Geyser, hidden at the bottom of the well and covered with geyserite, a bit reminiscent of natural pearls.
5. Hermitage (St. Petersburg)
The Winter Palace in St. Petersburg is a real treasure of the country and the northern capital. Its construction began under Peter the Great. This historical monument, looking into the waters of the Neva as if in a mirror, since the 1920s has become the most majestic and famous Russian museum – the Hermitage. Its unique collection owes its birth to the Empress Catherine II herself. The royal person placed her first acquired paintings in the Northern Pavilion in 1764. A random collection of paintings acquired by Catherine consisted of works by Jordaens, Hals and Rembrandt. With this purchase, Ekaterina began collecting paintings, which almost grew into a collecting mania. The rooms and galleries located in the Small Hermitage were filled with works of art literally exponentially. Soon there was simply no room left for paintings. Then the Great Hermitage was built. Soon the empress acquired the library of Denis Diderot, and Diderot himself, in gratitude, helped the empress buy paintings by the most famous masters of the brush. Today, the museum houses thousands of works by Poussin, Van Dyck, Rubens, Titian, Raphael and other geniuses who lived in Europe in different centuries. More than five million tourists visit the museum every year.
Official website: https://www.hermitagemuseum.org
See the beautiful places in Russia in this wonderful video!
6. Mamayev Kurgan (Volgograd)
Sculptures “Fight to Death” and “Motherland” on Mamayev Kurgan
Mamaev Kurgan – a hill that rises near the Volga, has long been a memorable place, unfortunately associated with the tragic events of the Patriotic War of 1941-1945. This monument to the memory of the heroes of the Battle of Stalingrad was opened in Volgograd in 1967. The remains of the soldiers – the defenders of Stalingrad – are buried on the hill. Immediately installed a statue of the Motherland 86 meters high. It can be seen for several kilometers to every traveler arriving in Volgograd. The sword in the hand of the statue with a total weight of 14 tons reaches a height of 33 meters. The weight of the entire sculpture is close to 1,500 tons. They say that a large SUV can fit in the palm of the statue! Often, guests of the city, going to this sight of Russia, lay flowers at the foot of Mamaev Kurgan and the Eternal Flame, honoring the memory of the victims of fascism. Guests of the city who are thinking about what to see in Russia and in Volgograd itself, of course, should admire the majestic changing of the guard ceremony, which takes place on Mamaev Kurgan every hour, starting at 9 am and ending at 7 pm. In addition, travelers who book an excursion here will see weapons from the Second World War – multi-ton tanks and cannons.
Official website: http://www.stalingrad-battle.ru/
7. Kazan Kremlin (Kazan)
View from the Ferris wheel to the ensemble of the Kazan Kremlin on the left bank of the Kazanka River Fendes
The Kazan Kremlin is the main decoration of the capital of Tatarstan. Its Spasskaya Tower, built in 1562, is the most recognizable building of an ancient architectural structure. Its main “sign” is the watch, and they have their own history. The first clock of the Kazan Kremlin was not quite an ordinary mechanism that showed the time. Their dial constantly rotated, but the hand did not move! The modern clock, by which the whole of Tatarstan now checks the time, was installed only in 1963. Exhibitions, concerts and other entertainment events are constantly held on the territory of the Kremlin in Kazan. There are also cozy cafes with national Tatar cuisine. The most recognizable building in the Kremlin is the “falling” Soyumbike tower. Tourists looking for something to see in Russia and Kazan, related to the ancient history of the country, will definitely pay attention to the Mausoleum of Kazan Khans. From the observation deck of the Kremlin, a stunning majestic view of the modern part of the city opens up: the registry office, new houses, the Arena, the Palace of Farmers and the embankment. Tourists who want to take pictures in armor and shoot from a bow will be able to do this on the territory of the Kazan Kremlin. The main decoration of the historical site is the elegant blue and white Kul Sharif mosque, which can accommodate more than 2,000 people.
Official website: http://kazan-kremlin.ru/
< h3> 8. State Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow)
Monument to Tretyakov P.M. in front of the Tretyakov Gallery
The Moscow State Tretyakov Gallery, founded in 1856, is a historical treasure of Russia. The exposition of the gallery is located in several buildings. More than 1,500,000 people come here every year to get acquainted with the well-known monuments of Russian art. At present, the collection of the Tretyakov Gallery covers a large historical period from representatives of ancient Russian painting of the 11th century to paintings by contemporaries. Every day the gallery is visited by students, elderly people, Muscovites and tourists who come to admire the sights of Russia. Here they admire the most famous works of art created by Ivanov, Shishkin, Vasnetsov, Surikov and other famous Russian artists. These paintings are the generally accepted standard of Russian art. Everyone will find the hall of Mikhail Vrubel here without mistake. Its subdued lighting and dark walls create an atmosphere that sets you up for a different perception of art. From all the works of a genius and a little strange in the manner of painting, the artist breathes mystery and fabulousness.
Official website: http://www.tretyakovgallery.ru/
9. Krasnaya Polyana (Sochi)
Sunny day in Krasnaya Polyana
Krasnaya Polyana is a ski resort near Sochi (Adler). There are trails for extreme sports, professionals, lovers of ski slopes and for beginners. Vacationers wishing to take pictures of the nearby sights of Russia and Sochi can go up on the cable car and take some rare shots. Of course, most tourists come to Krasnaya Polyana during the winter season, but even in summer, even those who decide to go here with kids will definitely find worthy entertainment here. The same cable car, which operates all year round, will appeal to both adults and their curious children, who have already managed to get tired of a beach holiday and frequent sea bathing. Having taken a lift ticket, you can climb to the highest point located in the mountains and relax in the Vysota bar, taking mulled wine for yourself, and natural juice for your child. There is also a mountain Olympic village built for the 2014 Olympics. Here you can stay in a hotel of any price category. In summer, you should definitely swim and sunbathe at the local beach while admiring the stunning views around the mountain.
10. Bolshoi Theater (Moscow)
The famous Bolshoi Theater of Opera and Ballet
The building of the Bolshoi Theater is easily recognizable by both avid theater-goers and people who are very far from everything related to art. It seems that the four horses, decorating the grandiose architectural structure, will now soar up. It is believed that the history of this Melpomene temple began in 1776, when Prince Urusov received permission from Empress Catherine II to open a public theater in Moscow. But the building that Urusov built burned down before opening, and he decided to sell the enterprise to the Englishman Michael Maddox, a mathematician from Oxford, invited to Russia to teach the sciences of Tsarevich Pavel Romanov. And on December 30, 1780, the theater was solemnly opened. A 1000-seat hall, a spacious stage and a large orchestra pit were built in it. The first prima ballerina of the Bolshoi was the Frenchwoman Felicata Gullen-Sor. In 1918, Lenin demanded that the Bolshoi Theater be demolished immediately. He argued that opera is a bourgeois art that requires huge expenses and does not bring any benefit. Surprisingly, it was Stalin who changed Lenin's mind. In 1940, the Soviet government held a competition to give the theater a “Soviet working style”. However, in 2011 the Bolshoy was restored, giving it its original historical appearance and improving acoustics.
Official site: http://www.bolshoi.ru/
Sights of Russia: what else to visit in Russia
Many people think that excursions in Russia are boring and monotonous, but this is not at all the case, at least if you take the organization of the trip seriously. Analyze our list of attractions and identify the ones that are of interest to you and your companions (family, friends, etc.) to avoid unnecessary fuss, money and time.
11.Solovki Archipelago (Arkhangelsk)
Spaso-Preobrazhensky Solovetsky Monastery
Often foreign travelers who are interested in what to visit in Russia decide to go to the Solovetsky archipelago, located in the White Sea and consisting of 6 large and small islands. Here is the famous medieval monastery of Solovki. When visiting the islands, you can get acquainted with the legendary monastery and fortress, learn the history of the infamous Stalinist Gulag camp. You will be shown numerous hermitages in different parts of the island, the monastery dry dock, stone labyrinths of prehistoric times. Solovetsky Island has no rivers, but hundreds of lakes. By taking a boat, you will be able to go on it through the complex system of channels of the island, connecting its largest lakes. The archipelago is home to white whales (beluga whales). The walls and 8 six-meter towers of the Solovetsky fortress were built from giant wild boulders. Household buildings, churches and cathedrals are located inside, under the protection of the fortress. Sekirnaya Gora, a recognizable place on Solovki, is located in the northwest of the archipelago. On the top of this high hill, in the 19th century, the monks built the Church of the Ascension, which also served as a lighthouse. In the era of the Gulag, there was one of the most cruel hard labor cells. A cross was later erected in memory of the people executed there.
12. Cable-stayed bridges in Vladivostok (Vladivostok)
Cable-stayed Golden Bridge in Vladivostok
The cable-stayed bridges in Vladivostok amaze with their grandeur everyone who comes to the country to see the sights of Russia. This modern grandiose building, which was under construction for almost six years, has become a modern symbol of the city and its pride. Until recently, even local residents could visit Russky Island only with special permission due to military installations on the island. Today, cable-stayed bridges, often referred to simply as the Russian Bridge, have connected the continent and the island. Opened in July 2012, the 1885-meter-long bridge is suspended on powerful cables. It took over a billion dollars to build. Dmitry Medvedev called the unique building a “business card” of the city of Vladivostok and the entire Far East. Originally built for guests of the APEC summit, this ultra-modern bridge has become the most popular tourist attraction in Vladivostok. This great building has already entered the Guinness Book of Records.
Official website: http://rusmost.ru/
13. Kizhi architectural ensemble (Petrozavodsk)
Kizhi – a monument of wooden architecture
Any traveler who thinks about what to visit in Russia and Karelia chooses a trip to Kizhi. You can get from Petrozavodsk to the architectural ensemble of Kizhi in an hour and a half by boat. Now there is a museum of wooden architecture. However, it might not have existed if the Spaso-Kizhi churchyard had not arisen here in the 15th century. At that time, not a cemetery was called a churchyard, but a unit of territorial division. There were 130 villages in Kizhi at that time. First, the winter and summer churches were built, which later burned down in a fire. The architectural ensemble, familiar to many today, was built only in the 18th century. Construction began with the nine-domed Intercession Church. Its unique iconostasis has survived to this day. The most famous landmark of Russia in Kizhi is the Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord. Its 22 domes are depicted on numerous Russian souvenirs, dishes, towels. They say that nails were not used in its construction, but this is not true. In total, the architectural ensemble consists of two churches and a large bell tower with 33 domes, symbolizing the number of years lived by the Savior.
14. Novgorod Kremlin (Veliky Novgorod)
Novgorod Kremlin towers
Novgorod is the oldest city in Russia, an ancient craft and trade center, a link connecting Russia with Europe. The city still invites guests to look at its amazing sights. Among them is the Novgorod Kremlin or, as it was originally called, “detinets”. This stone structure on the banks of the Volkhov was built by Prince Yaroslavl in the 11th century. For the first time, it was mentioned in the chronicles of 1044. But those original buildings have not been preserved. Later, the Kremlin was rebuilt and expanded several times. Today, the length of its walls is approaching one and a half kilometers. Now the Kremlin has 9 towers. The highest of them is Kokui. Behind the fortress walls there are various architectural monuments. St. Sophia Cathedral, near which all the townspeople used to gather at the Veche, the Faceted Chamber and the St. Sophia Belfry, which today attract curious tourists and people interested in the history of Russian architecture and the state as a whole. The territory of the Novgorod Kremlin is a favorite vacation spot for Novgorodians and guests of the ancient city. Here everything is adapted for recreation: cafes, playgrounds for children, carved benches. Thematic expositions dedicated to various events in Russian history are regularly arranged inside the Kremlin. From the observation deck you can take a panoramic shot of the city.
15. Kungur cave (Kungur, Perm region)
The Ice Kingdom of the Kungur Cave
Avid travelers looking for something to see the most unusual and even mystical in Russia should definitely go down to the Kungur cave. She is beautiful, and great, and truly magical. The first tourists, including kings, descended here in the 19th century. Today this place is the most famous Ural miracle. Up to 100,000 people visit it every year. In just a few hours, moving through the cave manholes, tourists see winter, autumn, and spring. But summer never happens in a cave. The temperature here does not rise above +5⁰ + 8⁰ C, so even the Urals themselves, who decide to admire stalactites, stalagmites and underground lakes at their leisure, often shiver here from the cold, forgetting to put on a warm jacket and hat before descending. The most beautiful hall of the cave, mesmerizing with its snow-white brilliance, is the Diamond Grotto, so named because of its many years of icing. Even if the temperature outside is +30⁰ C, snow flowers bloom on the walls of the grotto. Groups of tourists are not allowed to stay here for more than five minutes. The caretakers of the cave protect its microclimate and protect it from melting ice. The length of all the passages of the cave reaches six kilometers, along with fifty loopholes and grottoes, each of which has its own name and an amazing history. Many halls are illuminated with multi-colored lights and look like unreal, fantastic palaces.
Official website: http://kungurcave.ru/
16. St. Basil's Cathedral ( Moscow)
St. Basil's Cathedral or Cathedral of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on Red Square
The status of the most recognizable landmark of Moscow, in addition to the well-known Kremlin, should be assigned to St. Basil's Cathedral – even at a fleeting glance, its colorful domes evoke associations with the Russian capital. The origins of the cathedral date back to the 16th century, when, by order of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, a religious building grew on the site of the ancient temple of the Life-Giving Trinity. The creation of the cathedral was based on the idea of Heavenly Jerusalem – a hipped bell tower, around which eight domes are located, from above it resembles an eight-pointed star, similar to that of Bethlehem. And if the facade of the cathedral impresses with splendor and abundance of flowers, then the interior of the inner hall surprises with the simplicity of decoration. Here, in the twilight, a completely different spirit reigns – the spirit of commemorations and meek prayers. While the first floor is occupied by the main church hall, on the second tier there is an ensemble of 9 churches united by galleries.
Official website: https://shm.ru/museum< /p>
17. Tsarskoye Selo Museum-Reserve (Pushkin, St. Petersburg)
Catherine Park with a palace in golden autumn in the Tsarskoye Selo Museum-Reserve in St. Petersburg
The great heritage of the city of Pushkin is the Tsarskoye Selo Museum-Reserve with its Catherine Palace, which is a wonderful example of Russian architecture. The whole complex is the most important monument of gardening art of the 18th-20th centuries, which was badly damaged as a result of the events of the Great Patriotic War, but was later completely restored. The museum complex consists of gardens, parks, small thematic museums and the central object – the Catherine Palace, a magnificent baroque building in beautiful azure and white tones with an abundance of gilding elements. The splendor of the palace interior is especially evident in its Throne Room, sparkling with gilded decor and impressive artistically painted ceilings. The richness and cozy color of the Amber Room, the combination of snow-white walls and gold of the Front Enfilade, the grandeur and spaciousness of the Hermitage pavilion are impressive.
Official website: http://tzar.ru/< /p>
18. Golden Ring of Russia (cities of North-Eastern Russia)
Picturesque panoramic view of Suzdal – part of the Golden Ring of Russia
Wooden Church of the Savior in the Kostroma Museum of Wooden Architecture of the Golden Ring of Russia
The famous tourist route, which turned 50 in 2017, has already become a classic of tourism in Russia. It leads through the oldest Russian cities, where every historical place, every museum and cathedral keeps its centuries-old history. All the moments of the formation of ancient Russian architecture are revealed in the process of traveling through eight old Russian cities located on the map so that if you connect them with a single line, it looks like a closed ring – hence the name of the route. Majestic white-stone churches of the 12th-13th centuries, medieval tented buildings, creations of famous architectural schools, interesting exhibits of ancient museums, where woodcarving, products of talented jewelers and lacemakers, enamel painting, lacquer miniatures and much, much more will allow you to see with your own eyes a rich tour “Golden Ring of Russia”.
Official website: http://www.goldenringunion
19. Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin (Nizhny Novgorod)
Chkalov Stairs and St. George's Tower of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin in Nizhny Novgorod
On the territory of the confluence of the great Russian rivers, the Volga and the Oka, a brick fortress rises majestically – a fortification of the 16th century. The origins of the appearance of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin arose back in the distant 13th century, when the Russian prince founded the city here and surrounded it with fortifications. And only after 3 centuries an important fortification post of red brick and white limestone was erected. The total length of the Kremlin walls is about 2 km, these walls have 13 combat towers, and the main gate is the Dmitrievskaya Tower, which has become one of the symbols of Nizhny Novgorod. The second important tower is located in the south-eastern tip – this is the Georgievskaya Tower, next to which is the Minin and Pozharsky Square with a monument to Chkalov, as well as an observation deck from which the huge 560-step Chkalov Stairs leads down.
< em>Official website: https://ngiamz.ru
20. Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (1.5 km from Bogolyubov)
The white-stone Church of the Intercession on the Nerl on the territory of the Bogolyubovsky meadow, 1.5 km from the village of Bogolyubovo
Another of the monuments of ancient Russian architecture is located in the Russian outback, one and a half kilometers from the village of Bogolyubovo. On a clear day, against the background of the blue sky, the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl is especially beautiful – the meek beauty of its facade, the combination of the piercing blue of the domes with its snow-white walls, is impressive. The church, which has become one of the symbols of Russia, was built in the 12th century in just one summer, not far from the residence of Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky. It was consecrated in memory of the events that took place in Constantinople in the 10th century during the siege of the city by the Saracens. There is a belief that the inhabitants of the city gathered in those difficult times in temples and prayed for the salvation of the city, and holy fool Andrew noticed how in the crowd of worshipers, kneeling down, the Mother of God herself offered her prayers, after which she approached the throne, removed the cover from her head , stretched it over all people and granted salvation.
21. Cruiser Aurora (St. Petersburg)
Cruiser Aurora – the legendary warship moored at the embankment in St. Petersburg
Mentioning the sights of St. Petersburg, one cannot fail to mention one of the most symbolic monuments of the northern capital – the cruiser Aurora. The armored cruiser, created to strengthen the navy in the process of geopolitical rivalry with England, was named after the ancient Roman goddess of the dawn. It was built at the very end of the 19th century and survived a number of significant events of the 20th century: it participated in the battles of the Japanese, World War I, was involved in the storming of the Winter Palace and in the defense of Kronstadt. The ship was regularly bombarded by enemy artillery, but still survived to this day. Today, there is a museum on board the cruiser dedicated to the participation of the ship in significant historical events, as well as a ship temple restored in the post-Soviet era.
Official website: http://www.navalmuseum< /p>
22. Manpupuner (Komi Republic)
Manpupuner or Weathering Pillars on the territory of the Pechoro-Ilych Reserve in the Komi Republic
Amazing natural formations in the form of weathered pillars can be seen in the Troitsko-Pechora region of Komi. The unusual name of these creations – Manpupuner – translated from the Mansi language means “Small mountain of idols”. Once upon a time, millions of years ago, the Ural Mountains towered in this place, but over time, wind and water destroyed the rock. In some places, the stones turned out to be so strong that erosion could not cope with them – this is how a plateau was formed with bizarre rocky pillars, which are also called remnants. In total, there are seven such statues on the plateau, they rise in the middle of the plain, have a height of 30 to 42 meters and an unusual shape, from different angles resembling either the figure of a giant, or the head of a horse – in a word, there is room for the imagination to roam.
23 Volcanoes of Kamchatka (Kamchatka)
The area of the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky against the backdrop of the Koryaksky volcano at dawn
Russia is great and immense, and if the sights of central Russia are concentrated in cities adjacent to the capital, and getting to know them will not take much time, then to visit others you will have to get to the opposite end of the mainland. So, to study the beautiful natural creations of the Kamchatka Peninsula, it is worth highlighting a separate trip – this region is so rich. It abounds with waterfalls, hot springs, beaches and coves, and, of course, the true symbol of Kamchatka is its many volcanoes. There are few places on earth where you can find so many volcanoes on such a small area, and with them unique landscapes, so excursions to Kamchatka are primarily rafting on mountain rivers, climbing dormant volcanoes, skiing from snow-covered slopes, therapeutic bathing in thermal springs , acquaintance with the ancient culture of the indigenous northern peoples and much, much more.
24. Lena Pillars (Yakutia)
Lena Pillars on the banks of the Lena River in Yakutia
In the Republic of Yakutia, on the banks of the large Siberian river Lena, there is an amazing stone ridge with a length of about 80 kilometers. The rocks, in some places reaching a height of 200 meters, were formed from ancient limestones, and their formation began about 500 million years ago. These formations have a bizarre striped “color” and an unusual elongated shape, and today a national park has been created on their territory. Since ancient times, this place was considered sacred – only shamans and elders were allowed to the rocks to talk with the spirits. From a scientific point of view, the pillars are an example of ancient formations of sedimentary rocks – once there was a sea in their place, and the bone remains of marine life served as the material for the formation of future rocks. Over time, the sea dried up, and weathering processes led to the formation of unusual natural creations.
Official website: http://lenapillars.ru/
25. Mosque Kul Sharif (Kazan)
View from the Manezh building to the Kul Sharif mosque in the Kazan Kremlin
The main mosque of Tatarstan and the symbol of the entire Tatar people is the Kul Sharif mosque in Kazan – a place of Muslim worship, weddings, photo shoots for tourists, and just a corner of authentic beauty and peace. It is worth noting that the modern building is not a historical building, it was erected quite recently on the site of the original Kul Sharif mosque that once existed here. The original building was destroyed back in the 16th century by the troops of the Russian Tsar Grozny, and only from 1996 to 2005, active restoration of the mosque started on this site, and the opening itself was timed to coincide with the millennium of the Tatar capital. The modern building is built of white marble, has eight high towers – minarets. Inside you can visit the prayer halls, the Museum of Islam, and especially for foreign visitors there are even special balconies from where you can watch the service.
26. Swallow's Nest (Crimea)
Swallow's Nest castle on a rock above the Yalta Bay on the southern coast of Crimea
Amazing aerial view of the southern coast of Crimea with a castle over an abyss on a sunny day
Any quiz on the sights of Crimea is not complete without mentioning perhaps the most famous monument of the peninsula – a magnificent castle, literally hovering on the edge of a cliff above the sea. Of course, this is the well-known “Swallow's Nest” – the smallest castle in the world, located at the tip of the southern cape Ai-Todor, at an altitude of 40 meters above sea level. The castle itself was built back in 1912 by order of a German baron who wanted to see a castle in this beautiful place that would remind him of the architectural masterpieces of his distant homeland. In the Soviet years, more than one film was shot in the vicinity of the castle, starting from the 70s until 2011, a restaurant operated within its walls, and today you can visit the museum, see the interior and exterior of the building, and admire the view from a sheer cliff.
Official website: https://lastochkino castle
27. Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP (Yenisei River)
Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station named after P. S. Neporozhny on the Yenisei River
In addition to the classic sights, there are other interesting places in Russia that clearly demonstrate the colossal nature of human labor and the genius of engineering. These include the dam of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station, an impressive hydraulic structure in terms of scale and complexity. In terms of generated capacity, this hydroelectric power station ranks first among similar structures in Russia and seventh in the world. The dam has a huge height – 245 meters, and blocks the waters of one of the greatest rivers in the country – the Yenisei. Not only the size of the hydroelectric power station is impressive – perhaps the most striking sight is the incredible spillway, because in just one second more than 13 thousand cubic meters of water can be discharged through special compartments.
Official website: http://www.sshges.
28. Shikhans in Bashkiria (Bashkir Cis-Urals)
Shikhan Tratau – an isolated hill (solitary mountain) in the Bashkir Cis-Urals
Few people know that in Bashkiria you can find ancient coral reefs that lay at the bottom of the Ural Sea millions of years ago. Shikhany are mountains that have witnessed the natural processes taking place in those ancient times. These unique geological formations were essentially huge coral reefs, which, after the drying up of the ancient sea, became home to many terrestrial plants and animals. In modern times, Shihans are of some benefit to industry – a number of building materials are produced from multi-ton limestone deposits. Therefore, at the moment, out of the four shikhans, in fact, only three remain: Yuraktau, Kushtau and Toratau. The fourth shikhan of Shakhtau, alas, almost all went for processing by the Bashkir industrial enterprise.
29. Elbrus (Caucasus)
Elbrus is the highest peak in Russia in the North Caucasus
The highest peak in Russia is 5,642 meters and belongs to the Caucasus Mountains system. This is Mount Elbrus at the junction of two republics – Karachay-Cherkess and Kabardino-Balkaria. The characteristic double-headed shape of Elbrus made the mountain a unique recognizable symbol of the North Caucasus. Today, it fascinates and attracts the attention of both climbers seeking to conquer high peaks and travelers who come to the foot to feel all the greatness and power of the stone giant. An interesting fact is that these two peaks are of volcanic origin – they were formed on a volcanic basis and, in fact, are two independent volcanoes. According to existing data, the last eruption here occurred about 2 thousand years ago. The highest is the western peak, the eastern one is 21 meters lower, and the two peaks are separated by a saddle, the height of which is about 300 meters lower than the mountain peaks.
30. Plesetsk Cosmodrome (Mirny)
Soyuz rocket launch pad at the Plesetsk cosmodrome
Studying the sights of the world, it is worth paying attention to some objects of world importance in Russia – such is the Plesetsk cosmodrome, which played a crucial role in the development of astronautics. For example, until 2018, it ranked first in the world in terms of the number of space launches and launched vehicles. The cosmodrome is located in the Plesetsk district of the Arkhangelsk region and occupies a huge area – more than 1700 square meters. kilometers. Independent visits are prohibited, and excursion entry to the territory of the cosmodrome is carried out through a checkpoint, where strict control is exercised, due to the secrecy of the objects located here. On the territory you can visit the Historical and Memorial Museum, which is especially interesting for its realistic dioramas showing the launch of rockets.
31. Trans-Siberian Railway
VL 85-022 with a container train on the stretch Utulik-Slyudyanka on the coast of Lake Baikal Sorovas
The Great Siberian Way, today called the Trans-Siberian Railway, surpasses all railway lines in the world in its scale. The length of the highway is almost 10 thousand kilometers, it passes through 21 constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and its main task is to connect the European region of the country, its main (Moscow) and northern capital (St. Petersburg) with the most important Far Eastern and East Siberian cities of Russia. The construction of the great Trans-Siberian Railway started back in 1891, after the emperor issued a decree on laying the Great Siberian Route, and lasted almost a quarter of a century. The starting point of the construction was a place near Vladivostok – Kuperovskaya Pad, it was here that Tsarevich Nikolai, in the future Tsar Nicholas II, personally drove the first wheelbarrow of earth to the future roadbed.
32. Golden Mountains of Altai (Siberia)
Landscape of the State Biosphere Natural Reserve Golden Mountains of Altai
While the most popular historical sights are concentrated in the European part of Russia, its Asian part is a land of magnificent, pristine nature, wild expanses with a contrasting climate and sometimes very diverse nature. For example, Central Asia and Siberia are separated by a picturesque natural complex – the Golden Mountains of Altai, recognized as a World Heritage Site. Gorny Altai is a real treasury of natural resources: on an area of 1.64 million hectares there is the Altai Biosphere Reserve, the Katunsky Nature Reserve, the Belukha Nature Parks and the Ukok Quiet Zone. There are few places in the world with such contrasting landscapes – all the natural Central Asian zones converged in this region: steppes, deserts, forest-steppes, mountain taiga, mixed forests, alpine and subalpine meadows. The pearl of Altai is the deep-water Lake Teletskoye, called Baikal's younger brother.
33. Khan's Palace (Bakhchisaray)
The Khan's Palace and the Minaret of the Great Khan's Mosque in Bakhchisarai Jean & Nathalie
Interior of the buffet room of the Gansaray harem building in Bakhchisaray Jean & Nathalie
Mentioning the sights of the Crimean peninsula, one cannot fail to mention the magnificent monument of Crimean Tatar architecture – the Khan's Palace in Bakhchisarai. In ancient sources, the palace is mentioned as a khan's residence, the construction of which was completed by 1551. The main task of the craftsmen who worked on the construction of the palace was to embody the Muslim idea of an earthly paradise in the construction, and as a result of their work, not just a palace, but a miniature city grew up, which became the center of the cultural, spiritual and political life of the Crimean Tatar state. In the 20th century, a national museum was opened within the walls of the palace, and starting in 1979, as a result of laborious restoration, the palace acquired the role of a monument of Crimean architecture. The palace territory is still rich in greenery, fountains, all buildings have an authentic facade with characteristic ornate murals.
Official website: http://handvorec.ru/
34. Naval Cathedral of St. Nicholas (Kronstadt)
View from the Anchor Square to the Naval Cathedral of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Kronstadt Florstein
At the very beginning of the 20th century, by decree of Tsar Nicholas II, the largest naval cathedral of the times of the Russian Empire, Nikolsky, was erected in the fortress city of Kronstadt. Today, this beautiful neo-Byzantine monumental building is the main naval temple of the Russian Federation and functions as a branch of the Central Naval Museum. Inside, the temple has a rich decoration with a mass of painted ornaments, an abundance of gilding, where much attention is paid to the maritime theme, because the cathedral was originally conceived as a monument to the dead sailors. In the hall of the temple you can see black memorial plaques made of marble, in the altar – the same white ones: the names of naval officers who died in battle are listed on black, and the names of clergymen who died at sea are listed on white. An old garden is laid out in the square of the cathedral, in which 32 oak trees were planted by the Russian tsar and his entourage.
Official website: http://kronshtadtsobor.
35. Narzan Gallery (Kislovodsk)
The Frog Fountain in front of the Narzan Gallery in Kislovodsk Dymmoq
Inner hall of AlixSaz Narzan Gallery
The interior of the Narzan Gallery in Kislovodsk Laura bera
If we mention the natural attractions of Russia, the presentation will not do without such riches that not only please the eye, but also have a beneficial effect on human health. A very successful synthesis of useful natural gifts and skilful architectural craftsmanship is the Narzan Gallery, located in the very heart of Kislovodsk. Here, at the beginning of the 18th century, a narzan spring was discovered, the healing properties of its waters were discovered rather quickly, and a well was equipped a century later. In the same years, treatment with Narzan waters also spread. So, on the site of the spring, by order of Prince Vorontsov, in 1858, a beautiful Gothic structure made of yellow stone grew up, intended for the rest of holidaymakers who used life-giving water. The luxurious and spacious gallery has retained its original appearance to this day, having undergone only minor changes in the interior.